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Police Organization In Different Countries


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#1 BansheeOne

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 0906 AM

I promised a while ago on the "Because, America" thread to launch this one, inspired by Murph's look back on his service with the local sheriff's ofice; directly got to work, but unfortunately cannot embed some maps which would lend graphic clarity to my usual wall-of-text description. I re-formatted a little, and hope this is readable.

 

State of Lower Saxony

 

Obviously police organization often follows the overall administrative make-up of a country. In Germany, policing is primarily a state right. Rather than go with the specific metropolitan example of Berlin City and State police, I'd like to showcase Lower Saxony and, in particular, my home county of Göttingen. The state has an area of about 47,600 square kilometers and a population of eight million; police has a force of 24,000, of which 18,500 sworn officers, under the state police commissioner, who reports to the state minister of the interior. There are about 500 offices, 140 of which run round-the-clock shifts. These include

 

- the Lower Saxony State Bureau of Criminal Investigations (Hannover); also in charge of the state Spezialeinsatzkommando (SEK) since 2004;

 

- the Lower Saxony Police Academy (Nienburg, with additional campuses in Hann. Münden and Oldenburg);

 

- six regional HQs (Polizeidirektionen), each headed by a police commissioner - Hannover in the center and, clockwise from the northeast, Lüneburg, Braunschweig, Göttingen, Osnabrück and Oldenburg;

 

- the Zentrale Polizeidirektion in charge of central services; these include a helicopter squadron (two each MD 902 and EC 135), K-9, IT and medical services, the state police band, and the Bereitschaftspolizei. Literally "readiness police", the latter are formed units, particularly for basic training and anti-riot duty, but also other large-scale events. The total 1,100 officers are organized into seven company-sized "hundredships", two based in Hannover and one each with the other regional HQs; plus a technical unit also headquartered in Hannover, with one each communications, diver and special vehicles (armored cars and water cannon) platoon.

 

Below the six regional HQs are a total of 33 police inspections, generally at the county level. Polizeidirektion Oldenburg is unique in having a water police inspection with four stations on the North Sea coast and about 130 personnel. Riverine patroling is done by personnel of local inspections. For example, under regional HQ Göttingen, Police Inspection Nienburg/Schaumburg has ten officers policing the Weser, Aller and Hamme rivers on Lower Saxony territory as well as Lake Dümmer.

 

Göttingen County

 

One of the other four inspections under HQ Göttingen is for the former county of Göttingen itself (the latter was recently merged with neighboring Osterode County, but AFAIK police organisation remains the same). This is an area of 1.117 square kilometers with a population of 267,000. The inspection has a total of 504 sworn officers, five administrative officers and 58 civilian staff. Criminal investigations are conducted by seven Kommissariate:

 

- First (homicide, sexual, arson, kidnapping, weapons and explosives, assault);

 

- Second (theft, burglary, robbery, extortion, drugs);

 

- Third (fraud, economic crime, forgery, corruption, illegal gambling, human trafficking);

 

- Fourth (state protection, politically motivated crime);

 

- Fifth (crime scene investigation and files);

 

- Sixth (youth crime, graffiti, bike theft);

 

- Seventh (traffic);

 

plus a Task Force Cybercrime/Digital Forensics.

 

The city of Göttingen (population 120,000, 20 percent of which students at the local uni) has two patrol divisions with about 75 officers each, one co-located with the inspection. There is also an autobahn patrol division located in nearby Mengershausen on the A 7, responding to autobahn-related calls from the the counties of Göttingen, and Northeim and Osterode to the north (the Lower Saxony state line runs south of Göttingen county). All run 24-hour operations.

 

The same is not true for five supplemental stations which operate Monday to Friday 0730 to 1600 only, located in Friedland, Gleichen, Rosdorf, Bovenden and Adelebsen; these are communities ranging from 6,000 to 14,000, in a ring of five to 15 kilometers from Göttingen. In some cases they are manned by just a single officer reporting to the criminal investigations division on an area of 75-130 square kilometers, though others have a staff of three covering surrounding communities with a total of 15,000-30,000 inhabitants for.

 

Altogether, in 2017 there were 18,200 cases of reported crime in the area covered by the offices above, a reduction of ten percent from the previous year, and the first time under 19,000 since 1999. Resolution rate was 61.4 percent, slightly up from 59.7. 1,418 offenses were attributed to refugees, down from 2,709; mostly battery, theft and fare evasion. Minors were suspects in 1,063 cases, a return to 2015 levels after 994 the previous year.

 

Among crime fields, battery was prominent with over 2,000 cases, the second-highest number in the last ten years. 827 alone resulted from about 1,000 domestic disturbance calls. Almost a quarter of attacks occurred under the influence of alcohol. Police officers were assaulted in 124 cases, slightly down from 130; about half of them resulted in battery charges, with 57 perpetrators under the influence. There was a rise in drug cases from 905 to 1,218, attributed to more frequent controls and more successful investigations. Burglary was down to 403 cases from 520 the previous year; 259 occurred within the Göttingen city limits, and 160 could be attributed to a single perpetrator. There were two murder investigations, six for manslaughter and two for negligent homicide.

 

Merged former counties

 

Two further Kommissariate of the Göttingen inspection combining patrol and small investigative divisions with 24-hour operations are located in my hometown Duderstadt, 30 road kilometers to the east, and Hann. Münden, 30 kilometers to the southwest. Duderstadt is a town of 20,000 (including surrounding villages) on the state line with Thuringia, but the local division covers the entirety of what used to be its own county before it was merged into Göttingen, about 270 square kilometers with a population of 43,000. Two weekday/daytime operations stations are located in Gieboldehausen (15 road kilometers to the north, population 4,000; three officers responsible for an area of about 100 square kilometers with a population of 15,000) and Ebergötzen (15 kilometers to the northwest, population 2,000; a single officer for about 70 square kilometers with a population of ca. 7,000).

 

Total criminal cases in 2017 were 1,775, slightly up from 1,704 the previous year. 238 suspects were minors, quite a rise from 123. OTOH, resolution rate rose sharply to 75.1 percent from 58.5, mostly attributed to a reduction in crimes which have typical low rates, like car break-ins; these cases dropped from 59 to 29. Though burglaries increased from 44 to 54, overall property crime dropped from 546 to 384 cases, 44 percent of which resolved, up from 24.9. Fraud and forgery dropped from 313 to 242 cases, a third of which internet-related; resolution rate rose from 59 to 69 percent.

 

Violent crime rose from 289 to 318 cases, with 95 percent resolved; this included 208 cases of battery, and a rise from 64 to 108 of domestic violence, attributed to a higher reporting rate. Sexual assault rose from four to twelve cases, mostly due to the previous year's change to more inclusive legislation. All six cases of assault on minors could be cleared up. There was one negligent homicide investigation which however did not confirm the initial suspicion. Drug cases rose very sharply from 124 to 355, with a particular increase in possession of cannabis and amphetamines; drug dealing rose from 26 to 92 cases, though with a nearly 100 percent resolution rate.

 

Hann. Münden is similar, a town of 24,000 right on the state line with Hesse; the local division covers 320 square kilometers with a population of 44,000. As noted, there is a campus of the State Police Academy in town, too. Again there are also two outlying workday/daytime stations. One is in Dransfeld, a town of a little over 4,000 about 15 road kilometers to the northeast, where two officers work two shifts covering an area with a population of 12,000; the other covers Staufenberg, a community of about 9,000 in a salient protruding into Hesse to the south.

 

Crime in the area was at a seven-year low in 2017 at 1,733 reported cases, down from 1,941 the previous year. Resolution rate rose from 65 to 68 percent. As elsewhere, burglary dropped from 44 to 36, but drug cases rose from 122 to 176, most of which over cannabis. Again this was explained by increased controls, namely DUI checks.


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#2 Murph

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 0936 AM

We are pretty typical for most Sheriff's Offices in that we have the following units (divisions):

 

Patrol- the bread and butter of any department.  We have four shifts which overlap somewhat and the guys work a 5 on/4 off, 6 on/4 off rotating schedule.

Investigations- We break it down into People and Property crimes, although since there are so few of the guys, if they are on call, they catch it, they clean it.  So a property guy can work a people crime.  Then there is me and my investigator we are Special Investigations (Cold cases, Internal Affairs, Jail Investigations and Special Investigations (sensitive type)) which keeps me really busy.

Admin- this section has Courthouse Security, Civil process (subpoenas, and other court process), Warrants, Dispatch, and support staff.

 

Most police departments in Texas are similar.  Many smaller agencies, the Patrol guys are also the investigators.  Most departments in Texas have fewer than 20 officers.  There are many that have only 1-2 full time staff.  


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#3 Sardaukar

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 1107 AM

I promised a while ago on the "Because, America" thread to launch this one, inspired by Murph's look back on his service with the local sheriff's ofice; directly got to work, but unfortunately cannot embed some maps which would lend graphic clarity to my usual wall-of-text description. I re-formatted a little, and hope this is readable.

 

State of Lower Saxony

 

Obviously police organization often follows the overall administrative make-up of a country. In Germany, policing is primarily a state right. Rather than go with the specific metropolitan example of Berlin City and State police, I'd like to showcase Lower Saxony and, in particular, my home county of Göttingen. The state has an area of about 47,600 square kilometers and a population of eight million; police has a force of 24,000, of which 18,500 sworn officers, under the state police commissioner, who reports to the state minister of the interior. There are about 500 offices, 140 of which run round-the-clock shifts. These include

 

- the Lower Saxony State Bureau of Criminal Investigations (Hannover); also in charge of the state Spezialeinsatzkommando (SEK) since 2004;

 

- the Lower Saxony Police Academy (Nienburg, with additional campuses in Hann. Münden and Oldenburg);

 

- six regional HQs (Polizeidirektionen), each headed by a police commissioner - Hannover in the center and, clockwise from the northeast, Lüneburg, Braunschweig, Göttingen, Osnabrück and Oldenburg;

 

- the Zentrale Polizeidirektion in charge of central services; these include a helicopter squadron (two each MD 902 and EC 135), K-9, IT and medical services, the state police band, and the Bereitschaftspolizei. Literally "readiness police", the latter are formed units, particularly for basic training and anti-riot duty, but also other large-scale events. The total 1,100 officers are organized into seven company-sized "hundredships", two based in Hannover and one each with the other regional HQs; plus a technical unit also headquartered in Hannover, with one each communications, diver and special vehicles (armored cars and water cannon) platoon.

 

Below the six regional HQs are a total of 33 police inspections, generally at the county level. Polizeidirektion Oldenburg is unique in having a water police inspection with four stations on the North Sea coast and about 130 personnel. Riverine patroling is done by personnel of local inspections. For example, under regional HQ Göttingen, Police Inspection Nienburg/Schaumburg has ten officers policing the Weser, Aller and Hamme rivers on Lower Saxony territory as well as Lake Dümmer.

 

Göttingen County

 

One of the other four inspections under HQ Göttingen is for the former county of Göttingen itself (the latter was recently merged with neighboring Osterode County, but AFAIK police organisation remains the same). This is an area of 1.117 square kilometers with a population of 267,000. The inspection has a total of 504 sworn officers, five administrative officers and 58 civilian staff. Criminal investigations are conducted by seven Kommissariate:

 

- First (homicide, sexual, arson, kidnapping, weapons and explosives, assault);

 

- Second (theft, burglary, robbery, extortion, drugs);

 

- Third (fraud, economic crime, forgery, corruption, illegal gambling, human trafficking);

 

- Fourth (state protection, politically motivated crime);

 

- Fifth (crime scene investigation and files);

 

- Sixth (youth crime, graffiti, bike theft);

 

- Seventh (traffic);

 

plus a Task Force Cybercrime/Digital Forensics.

 

The city of Göttingen (population 120,000, 20 percent of which students at the local uni) has two patrol divisions with about 75 officers each, one co-located with the inspection. There is also an autobahn patrol division located in nearby Mengershausen on the A 7, responding to autobahn-related calls from the the counties of Göttingen, and Northeim and Osterode to the north (the Lower Saxony state line runs south of Göttingen county). All run 24-hour operations.

 

The same is not true for five supplemental stations which operate Monday to Friday 0730 to 1600 only, located in Friedland, Gleichen, Rosdorf, Bovenden and Adelebsen; these are communities ranging from 6,000 to 14,000, in a ring of five to 15 kilometers from Göttingen. In some cases they are manned by just a single officer reporting to the criminal investigations division on an area of 75-130 square kilometers, though others have a staff of three covering surrounding communities with a total of 15,000-30,000 inhabitants for.

 

Altogether, in 2017 there were 18,200 cases of reported crime in the area covered by the offices above, a reduction of ten percent from the previous year, and the first time under 19,000 since 1999. Resolution rate was 61.4 percent, slightly up from 59.7. 1,418 offenses were attributed to refugees, down from 2,709; mostly battery, theft and fare evasion. Minors were suspects in 1,063 cases, a return to 2015 levels after 994 the previous year.

 

Among crime fields, battery was prominent with over 2,000 cases, the second-highest number in the last ten years. 827 alone resulted from about 1,000 domestic disturbance calls. Almost a quarter of attacks occurred under the influence of alcohol. Police officers were assaulted in 124 cases, slightly down from 130; about half of them resulted in battery charges, with 57 perpetrators under the influence. There was a rise in drug cases from 905 to 1,218, attributed to more frequent controls and more successful investigations. Burglary was down to 403 cases from 520 the previous year; 259 occurred within the Göttingen city limits, and 160 could be attributed to a single perpetrator. There were two murder investigations, six for manslaughter and two for negligent homicide.

 

Merged former counties

 

Two further Kommissariate of the Göttingen inspection combining patrol and small investigative divisions with 24-hour operations are located in my hometown Duderstadt, 30 road kilometers to the east, and Hann. Münden, 30 kilometers to the southwest. Duderstadt is a town of 20,000 (including surrounding villages) on the state line with Thuringia, but the local division covers the entirety of what used to be its own county before it was merged into Göttingen, about 270 square kilometers with a population of 43,000. Two weekday/daytime operations stations are located in Gieboldehausen (15 road kilometers to the north, population 4,000; three officers responsible for an area of about 100 square kilometers with a population of 15,000) and Ebergötzen (15 kilometers to the northwest, population 2,000; a single officer for about 70 square kilometers with a population of ca. 7,000).

 

Total criminal cases in 2017 were 1,775, slightly up from 1,704 the previous year. 238 suspects were minors, quite a rise from 123. OTOH, resolution rate rose sharply to 75.1 percent from 58.5, mostly attributed to a reduction in crimes which have typical low rates, like car break-ins; these cases dropped from 59 to 29. Though burglaries increased from 44 to 54, overall property crime dropped from 546 to 384 cases, 44 percent of which resolved, up from 24.9. Fraud and forgery dropped from 313 to 242 cases, a third of which internet-related; resolution rate rose from 59 to 69 percent.

 

Violent crime rose from 289 to 318 cases, with 95 percent resolved; this included 208 cases of battery, and a rise from 64 to 108 of domestic violence, attributed to a higher reporting rate. Sexual assault rose from four to twelve cases, mostly due to the previous year's change to more inclusive legislation. All six cases of assault on minors could be cleared up. There was one negligent homicide investigation which however did not confirm the initial suspicion. Drug cases rose very sharply from 124 to 355, with a particular increase in possession of cannabis and amphetamines; drug dealing rose from 26 to 92 cases, though with a nearly 100 percent resolution rate.

 

Hann. Münden is similar, a town of 24,000 right on the state line with Hesse; the local division covers 320 square kilometers with a population of 44,000. As noted, there is a campus of the State Police Academy in town, too. Again there are also two outlying workday/daytime stations. One is in Dransfeld, a town of a little over 4,000 about 15 road kilometers to the northeast, where two officers work two shifts covering an area with a population of 12,000; the other covers Staufenberg, a community of about 9,000 in a salient protruding into Hesse to the south.

 

Crime in the area was at a seven-year low in 2017 at 1,733 reported cases, down from 1,941 the previous year. Resolution rate rose from 65 to 68 percent. As elsewhere, burglary dropped from 44 to 36, but drug cases rose from 122 to 176, most of which over cannabis. Again this was explained by increased controls, namely DUI checks.

 

- First (homicide, sexual, arson, kidnapping, weapons and explosives, assault);

 

Where do I sign up for those?

 

Oh...you did mean preventing and solving :D


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#4 Jeff

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 1110 AM

 

Most police departments in Texas are similar.  Many smaller agencies, the Patrol guys are also the investigators.  Most departments in Texas have fewer than 20 officers.  There are many that have only 1-2 full time staff.  

 

What's with the penchant for sheriffs and chiefs, regardless of the size of the police force under them, walking around in uniforms one step below a South American dictator's generalissimo uniform? Some guy can have a half dozen officers under his command and he's got four starts on his collar. WTF?


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#5 Sardaukar

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 1113 AM

Hey, 4 star police chief is at least as competent as 4-star general ;)


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#6 Harold Jones

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 1209 PM

Most police departments in Texas are similar.  Many smaller agencies, the Patrol guys are also the investigators.  Most departments in Texas have fewer than 20 officers.  There are many that have only 1-2 full time staff.

 
What's with the penchant for sheriffs and chiefs, regardless of the size of the police force under them, walking around in uniforms one step below a South American dictator's generalissimo uniform? Some guy can have a half dozen officers under his command and he's got four starts on his collar. WTF?

No one wants to show up at a state or national convention and be mistaken for a peon.
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#7 Murph

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 1345 PM

You know, I have asked that question, and have never gotten a satisfactory answer yet after 25 years of asking it.  The closest I have come is that it is up to the chief/Sheriff as to what they wear.  Mine never wears a uniform, just a gold badge.  If there is a rule, it seems to be the bigger the city, the more stars on the collars.  

 

 

Most police departments in Texas are similar.  Many smaller agencies, the Patrol guys are also the investigators.  Most departments in Texas have fewer than 20 officers.  There are many that have only 1-2 full time staff.  

 

What's with the penchant for sheriffs and chiefs, regardless of the size of the police force under them, walking around in uniforms one step below a South American dictator's generalissimo uniform? Some guy can have a half dozen officers under his command and he's got four starts on his collar. WTF?

 


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#8 Mikel2

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 1405 PM

It does become rather ridiculous when they have more stars and decorations than Eisenhower. And policemen need to be reminded that they are civilians.

Eisenhower.jpg
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#9 Murph

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 1452 PM

The new trend in SWAT/Tactical style vests looks too military, but I like them, because we can finally get all the weight off our lower backs.  I have back trouble due to carrying all the [email protected] I have had to carry for 25+ years.  Sheriff's Offices in Texas at least tend to try and look "western" or as non military as possible with the exception of the SWAT guys.  When the Sheriff banned the carrying of tactical knives, the SWAT guys whined, but we did not need a patrol officer carrying a 5+ inch bladed knife.  Now a smaller knife that has a seat belt cutter is perfectly ok.  I carry an old style Smith and Wesson folding knife daily w/ a 3" blade.  I wear cowboy boots, starched Wrangler jeans (Khakl, brown and black (no blue)) and a collared shirt with a belt, holster, mag/cuff case matching the boots.  I DO NOT wear a necktie except when I am in court, at a funeral, or speaking with the media.  I also have a Navy Polo that I wear sometimes.  The wearing of devices and ribbons is discouraged in my agency, other than a SWAT pin and your badge.    


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#10 Murph

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 1453 PM

You go to the Sheriff's Association of Texas convention, and the Sheriff's are trying to out "Western wear" the others.  Some of those guys boots and hats cost more than I make in a month.

 

 

Most police departments in Texas are similar.  Many smaller agencies, the Patrol guys are also the investigators.  Most departments in Texas have fewer than 20 officers.  There are many that have only 1-2 full time staff.

 
What's with the penchant for sheriffs and chiefs, regardless of the size of the police force under them, walking around in uniforms one step below a South American dictator's generalissimo uniform? Some guy can have a half dozen officers under his command and he's got four starts on his collar. WTF?

No one wants to show up at a state or national convention and be mistaken for a peon.

 


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#11 Panzermann

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 1605 PM

 

 

Most police departments in Texas are similar.  Many smaller agencies, the Patrol guys are also the investigators.  Most departments in Texas have fewer than 20 officers.  There are many that have only 1-2 full time staff.

 
What's with the penchant for sheriffs and chiefs, regardless of the size of the police force under them, walking around in uniforms one step below a South American dictator's generalissimo uniform? Some guy can have a half dozen officers under his command and he's got four starts on his collar. WTF?

No one wants to show up at a state or national convention and be mistaken for a peon.

 

 

This is pretty much the conclusion that I have come to watching from this side of the pond over the years, seeing this fashion of pinning four (or even five) stars on for a sheriff or police shief. When outsiders come in to a situation, how to mark the sheriff? sergeants, lieutenant, captains, sure, but what is the generally accepted insignina for a sheriff? Just a star badge on the chest makes him (or her) look like a deputy from afar. How to quickly identify the highest ranking law enforcement guy on the scene and thus the guy in charge and responsible? Pinning on four stars solves this, but OTOH makes him look like a banana dictator.  :mellow:


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#12 MiloMorai

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 1939 PM

They could wear something like this, if they already don't. eee19975b85bf8da219e7d731c4b9c15.jpg​


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#13 DougRichards

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Posted 30 December 2018 - 1951 PM

In a large police force, say one that covers an entire state with a large number of members, in New South Wales 16,649 officers, a military style rank system seems to work.  We do not have 'local sheriffs' in the US manner.

 

So, here are the insignia.

 

rank_insignia_poster.jpg

 

 

Nearby Victoria has a similar system, but not identical.

 

Of note is that a large number of New South Wales Police officers, and their across the border counterparts, are sworn special constables in the neighbouring state jurisdictions, which basically means that by just crossing a state border a suspect cannot evade arrest.


Edited by DougRichards, 30 December 2018 - 2025 PM.

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#14 Colin

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Posted 31 December 2018 - 0124 AM

Federally in Canada = RCMP

 

this also can operate as a Municipal and Provincial police, depending on agreements with municipalities and Provinces. 

 

Some Province like Quebec and Ontario have their own police forces  https://www.opp.ca/   https://www.sq.gouv.qc.ca/en/contact-us/  

 

Some cities also have their own police forces  https://vancouver.ca/police/  

 

All municipal police in BC are subject to the BC Police Act http://www.bclaws.ca...tatreg/96367_01

 

Which oddly dictates they must only use .40cal pistols, while the RCMP uses ancient SW 5946 in 9mm

 

BC-firearms-academy-RCMP-Handgun-Smith-W​


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#15 Panzermann

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Posted 31 December 2018 - 0131 AM

We are pretty typical for most Sheriff's Offices in that we have the following units (divisions):

 

Patrol- the bread and butter of any department.  We have four shifts which overlap somewhat and the guys work a 5 on/4 off, 6 on/4 off rotating schedule.

Investigations- We break it down into People and Property crimes, although since there are so few of the guys, if they are on call, they catch it, they clean it.  So a property guy can work a people crime.  Then there is me and my investigator we are Special Investigations (Cold cases, Internal Affairs, Jail Investigations and Special Investigations (sensitive type)) which keeps me really busy.

Admin- this section has Courthouse Security, Civil process (subpoenas, and other court process), Warrants, Dispatch, and support staff.

 

Most police departments in Texas are similar.  Many smaller agencies, the Patrol guys are also the investigators.  Most departments in Texas have fewer than 20 officers.  There are many that have only 1-2 full time staff.  

 

How is the relation to state police? the texas Rangers? And whatever alse law enforcement Texas may have?


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#16 BansheeOne

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Posted 31 December 2018 - 0404 AM

German Federal Police have gained some authority since they were transformed from the old West German Federal Border Guard, but they remain mostly connected to border control (generally non-stationary in a 30-kilometer area behind the borders, since the latter are open under Schengen - though temporary fixed controls can be installed in exceptional situations like the refugee crisis, or recently after the Strasbourg terror attack, the latter city being right on the line); this includes ports and airports, and also rail transport since the old Bahnpolizei was merged into them. Otherwise, they play only by invitation of the states - which are happy to request them for major events, since it means they don't have to pay for bigger forces of their own. Then there is of course the Federal Bureau of Criminal Investigations (BKA).

 

Technically, the most immediate law enforcement authority often rests with counties and cities, but doesn't generally include special powers of arrest or use of force; polizeilich in this case means "by policy" rather than "by police". The last of the old municipal police forces vanished in the 70s in Bavaria. Some municipalities have since returned to putting staff of their respective Ordnungsämter beyond the usual metermaids into blue uniforms for public presence; the state of Hesse has actually allowed them to be called Ordnungspolizei - which is somewhat unfortunate since that was the designation for uniformed police under the Nazis - or Stadtpolizei since 2004, and arm them. Frankfurt has been the only city to make use of the option to issue firearms, while elsewhere in Hesse they'll carry at best batons, CS and handcuffs.

 

Otherwise, regular police is mostly state. Organisation obviously difffers, but the look and procedures are rather uniform due to federal-state standardization agreements by the Conference of Interior Ministers; the federal government contributes some money (particularly for the Bereitschaftspolizei, which like in the Weimar Republic was envisioned as a paramilitary force to fight possible communist insurrection in the young FRG before there was a Bundeswehr) and gets some say in return. That's why uniforms used to be green-and-khaki and vehicles green-and-white across Germany since the 70s, and are now blue with some white items (silver-grey base color for vehicles) following an EU agreement that this was the most recognizable color for police anywhere after the turn of the millenium.

 

Firearms will vary, but 9 mm is standard caliber; assault rifles and the MP 7 are making some inroads to supplement the MP 5 in the age of increased terrorist threats. Shotguns are only speciality items to blow open locks and for animal control. Some of the old FALs and G 3s of the Bereitschaftspolizei remain for similar reasons, punching through barricades etc.; the G 8 (HK 21) was a pretty specific contraption as a rifle-like machinegun for police use on armored vehicles etc. to replace the initial MG 42. I believe in the old times there were even 81 mm mortars.

 

Of note is that the traditional rank system of common (enlisted), middle (NCOs), elevated (officers) and higher (staff officers) service has been progressively truncated from the bottom due to requirements of increasing training and competitive pay. I think corrections is the only field where common service ranks survive anywhere in German public service, and some states like Hesse and Bremen have even abolished middle service; lowest rank is then Kommissar (paygrade A 9, equal to 2nd lieutenant in the Bundeswehr), training typically three years at a school of public administration resulting in a BA. Where the middle service survives, initial rank in training (generally with the Bereitschaftspolizei) is Polizeimeisteranwärter (A 5), then after passing examination Polizeimeister (A 7).


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#17 Harold Jones

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Posted 31 December 2018 - 0745 AM

Does Bavaria still have its own border police units?  When I was in the 2nd ACR we used to occasionally do joint border patrols with them. 


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#18 Ssnake

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Posted 31 December 2018 - 0800 AM

They do. Can't trust these Austrians.


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#19 DB

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Posted 31 December 2018 - 0838 AM

Plenty on the UK Police (except Scotland) here https://www.police.uk/

 

Rank structure is as described here: https://www.anglotop...-mystery-shows/, although that concentrates on London with all the stuff about Deputy Assistant Commissioners.

 

No Border police, no local police departments, no Feds, Nothing like that at all (Although the National Crime Agency is occasionally described as being like the FBI, it definitely isn't.)

 

Organisationally, in the UK we have a clear split between Scotland, Northern Ireland and (England and Wales). In E&W, there are 43 police "services", geographically bound and generally associated with counties or municipal conurbations (e.g. Greater Manchester Police, Dorset Police, etc.) In addition to those, there are four national organisations - British Transport Police, Civil Nuclear Constabulary, MoD Police and the National Air Police Service. 

 

In Scotland there is a single service, reporting directly to the Scottish Government. 

 

In NI, The Police Service of Northern Ireland replaced the Royal Ulster Constabulary a number of years ago. I suspect it reports to UK Gov at the moment, but I'm not sure.

 

In E&W, they report either to a City Mayor (London and Manchester only) or to a Police and Crime Commissioner, who is directly elected.

 

Uniforms are pretty... uniform. This page seems accurate enough. https://en.wikipedia...Current_uniform

 

You rarely see the "custodian" helmet nowadays, because most officers are not on foot patrol, so will turn up in vehicles.


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#20 Mike Steele

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Posted 31 December 2018 - 1012 AM

Does Bavaria still have its own border police units?  When I was in the 2nd ACR we used to occasionally do joint border patrols with them. 

That was along the IGB that didn't work, right? ^_^


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