Kinda. There is quite a lot of HMS Victory left that is original. Or at least, original, to the rebuild in 1814. According to one book on her, most of the Trafalgar victory disappeared then during a refit, mainly because she had been shot to bits in 1805 and they just patched her up. She was after all something like 35 years old before she even went to Trafalgar.
You go below decks and you can feel that its REALLY old. And at least one of her sails from 1805, shot full of holes, still exists. So there isnt much, but what there is you can make a case for it being the same ship just from the longevity of it.
Looked at another way, Im told that every cell in the human body supposedly changes every 7 years. But its still the same you, if you see what I mean.