Looking for refs, I found this blog, which is somewhat entertaining on the subject. It is not very new.
Then there is:
Aha, this one: From the USN 1997 Posture[ing] Statement:
Naval Fires: Fire support requirements for the future are being addressed by wedded Global Positioning Systems and gun technologies that will enable surface ships to engage targets ashore more than 60 miles distant. Especially promising are composite-material technology breakthroughs, which could enable gun systems to engage targets beyond 100 nautical miles. Research-and-development funding has been allocated to develop these capabilities for future deployment in the fleet.
The Army's Tactical Missile System, or ATACMS, is a medium-range weapon that provides a quick-response strike capability to support our expeditionary forces within ten minutes of the call for fire. The Navy is evaluating a seagoing version of the Army missile for deployment on board surface ships and submarines. The quick-response strike capability of a Navy TACMS makes it ideally suited to engage mobile command-and-control, air-defense, and cruise-missile launch platforms. In the near future, the TACMS missile could provide an effective means to counter weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by providing the ability to destroy them without warning. A joint Army/Navy project currently under way will develop and test a warhead that will give TACMS the capability of destroying deeply buried or hardened targets, such as those used for WMD production and storage facilities.
The Navy is also investigating the concept of modifying the Standard missile for a surface-to-ground strike role. Studies are under way to determine which missile option is the most cost-effective way to provide a rapid response, all-weather strike capability in support of military power projection ashore.
Arsenal Ship: Arsenal Ship is a technology demonstration program exploring affordable and innovative enhancements to our force of carriers and strike capable combatants and submarines. Armed with missiles and with space for future extended range gun systems, Arsenal Ship has the potential to provide massive firepower in the early stages of a crisis, and to augment fire support to landing force or other ground commanders. These platforms could be continuously forward deployed, available for rapid movement upon receipt of warning or changes in the tactical situation. Much like our Maritime Prepositioning Force, Arsenal Ships could remain on station as required for indefinite periods without dependence on host nation support or permission. The program is designed to develop technologies for incorporation in the SC 21 and other future platform types.
In 1994, then-Vice CJCS Adm William Owens, a member of the Revn in Military Affairs cabal, called for testing the army's ATACMS at sea as a possible anwser to the USMC demand for longer range shore fire systems in support of the Over-the-Horizon doctrines for PhibOps.
I can't find any reports but I recall a shipboard compatibility project held c.1995 in which the concept was considered unsupportable because of the on-deck and stowage spaces could not be accommodated, even on a 20,000 ton LPD. The blogger on my first reference derides such things as mindless stunts. He may have a point.
From Warships1: A discussion thread
The US Navy also tested one such round at White Sands, followed by an at-sea launch from the amphibious assault ship USS Mount Vernon in February 1995. The vessel, steaming at 10kt, fired the missile from a standard M270 tracked launcher chained to its helicopter deck (emphasis added)... An operational variant of Navy TACMS could use either the Mk41 Vertical Launch System (for which United Defense has designed a suitable canister) or fixed deck launchers. The round's six-channel GPS receiver provided 13 position updates, using a total of eight Navstar satellites, during its 75nmi flight to the target area on San Clemente Island off the coast of California. The missile then dispensed some 800 inert grenades, achieving an accuracy of 71% of the weapon's nominal circular error probable (emphasis added).
So, it remain's anybody's guess at this point, but USN inertia likely will prevail.