According to surveys, top threats to Germany are ISIS, climate change and cyberattacks. Conventional adversaries like Russia or China are considered to be threats by very few. It’s no wonder Bundeswher is funded at essentially starvation levels.
That's from pollster Allensbach's 2018 Security Report in February, in which 74 percent named the IS as as possible threat to German security, 48 percent the conflict with North Korea, 37 the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, 29 percent Israel-Palestine, 28 percent the Syrian civil war, 20 percent Saudi Arabia-Iran, 19 percent the Taleban, 16 percent various civil wars in Africa. Which is not wrong in the physical sense (except that three months on, Korea looks quite different, showing how rapidly situations might be re-assessed); some random guy who pledged allegiance to the IS is far more likely to commit an attack in Germany than the Ukrainian conflict spilling over on German territory, though of course there are different ways to look at this.
More interesting are the countries who are considered a threat to world peace: North Korea 73 percent, the US 40 (which is high even by nutty German peacenik standards, part of the Trump effect; 49 percent don't consider the US a trustworthy partner at this point while only 24 percent expressively do); Iran 37, Turkey 33, Syria 30, Russia 28. As usual there's some difference between West and East Germans - of the former, 38 percent consider the US and 32 Russia a threat to world peace, of the latter 48 and 15 percent respectively. OTOH, trust in NATO has grown from a low of 32 percent in 2007 to 45 (48 of West, 35 of East Germans).
At the same time, fear of a war involving Germany has declined from a peak of 24 percent overall in 2016 to 18, which is 2014-level (pre-Ukraine, it used to be 15-16). Future personal risks people worry much more about are poverty in old age (77 percent), natural disasters (74), corporate abuse of personal data (71), terror attacks (69), care dependency or dementia in old age (68), internet data theft (67), violent crime (52) and property crime (49). Overall, personal fears are at a seven-year low, mostly due to a decline of economic worries (loss of income, inflation, unemployment). If asked about what the government should spend more money on, people mostly say schools (76 percent), families with kids (72), healthcare (70), police (69), pensions (64) and traffic infrastructure (56); only 27 percent mention the Bundeswehr.
So folks are much more interested in domestic than external security, which many don't seem to connect. In fact trust in the Bundeswehr has declined from 53 percent in 2011 to 45, which is probably in part a self-inflicted wound by Defense Minister von der Leyen due to her utter mishandling of armed forces "scandals" in recent years, but also because of the frequent reports about lack of equipment and capabilities; only 22 percent judge the state of the Bundeswehr as good, 41 less than good, 22 not good at all. It's paradoxical then of course that so few want more money for it, but it's just not particularly high on people's priority list.